Therapeutic muds or peloids are natural colloidal organic-formations (silt, from peat, knoll) with high plasticity, heat capacity and slow heat dissipation.Containing biologically active substances (salts, gases, vitamins, enzymes, hormones, etc.) and living microorganisms.
In its origin, determining the peculiarities of their composition and therapeutic properties, muds are divided into six types:

  • peat mud,
  • sapropelic mud,
  • sulphide silt mud,
  • clayey mud,
  • knoll muds,
  • hydrothermal muds.

Peat mud is a kind of marsh sediments. Therapeutic significance of peat is due to its high thermal properties and large amounts of organic substances. Including therapeutically active – humic acids, lipids, bitumen. Peat mud stimulates enzymatic activity, accelerates the processes of regeneration and has anti-inflammatory effect.

Sulphide silt mud – these sediments are met mostly in salt water reservoirs, mainly of the mineral composition, with the content of a small amount of organic substances and in varying degrees enriched with water-soluble salts and iron sulphides. A very important feature of the silt mud is that it contains various gases. (Hydrogen sulphide – up to 200 mg/1000 g therapeutic mud, methane, carbon dioxide, ammonia) .And organic substances, which have an expressed therapeutic effect.
Therapeutic influence of curative muds (peloids) is due to their thermal and mechanical effects, but above all they are effective due to the chemical composition and the presence of biologically active substances.
In the basis of the physiological effect of therapeutic mud is a complex influence on the body of the temperature, mechanical and chemical factors.

    • Temperature factor of therapeutic mud. Physical basis of the mechanism of therapeutic influence of peloids is that mud, having high thermal capacity, low thermal conductivity, insignificant convective ability, provide prolonged heat preservation, gradual impact on body, deep penetration into the tissues.
    • Mud applications due to mechanical factors influence on receptor apparatus of the skin and mucous membranes, reflexively affect the neuro-endocrine, nervous and vascular mechanisms which leads to functional, microcirculatory and metabolic changes in the tissues, organs and organ systems, and primarily come out with the trophic effect.
    • Chemical theory of the mechanism of curative mud connects therapeutic effect with their chemical composition.
Therapeutic mud enhances peripheral blood circulation, promotes more intensive movement of erythrocytes, oxygen transference and output, improves tissue oxygenation and metabolism. Mud treatments improve coronary blood circulation, change myocardial contractility and peripheral resistance. The application of procedures quickens the pulse and breathing, increases arterial blood pressure, which is then reduced, is enhanced sweating, increases urinary function. The autonomic nervous system plays a significant role in the development and progress of these changes.
Vaginal and rectal tampons with curative mud are used in the treatment of gynecological diseases and a number of chronic inflammatory processes in men, as well as in diseases of rectum. Mud treatment has an expressed anti-inflammatory, desensitizing and absorbable effect, increases the local immunity, possesses the expressed analgetic. And neurotrophic influence, improves blood circulation in the small pelvic organs.